JAMB Biology Syllabus, 2018

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JAMB Biology Syllabus, 2018

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Post by admin » Sat Jan 27, 2018 12:58 pm

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The Jamb syllabus is made available for students to serve as a study guide to follow while preparing for the jamb examination. The syllabus contains all the topics expected for candidates to cover be writing the examination.
The 2018 JAMB Biology syllabus is divided into 5 main sections, in which, under each sections, there are topic to be covered and what is expected of student to know from the topics.
1. ECOLOGY
2. EVOLUTION
3. FORM AND FUNCTIONS
4. HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS
5. VARIETY OF ORGANISMS

TOPIC 1: ECOLOGY
SUB TOPIC 1: FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANISMS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
A.
i. deduce the effects of temperature; rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, altitude, salinity, turbidity, pH and edaphic (soil) conditions on the distribution of organisms.

ii. use appropriate equipment (e.g. secchi disc, thermometer, rain gauge etc) to measure abiotic factors.

B.
i. describe how the activities of plants/animals (particularly human) affect the distribution of organisms.
CONTENT
(a) Abiotic
(b) Biotic.

SUB TOPIC 2: LOCAL (NIGERIAN) BIOMES
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i. locate biomes in regions.
ii. apply the knowledge of the features of the listed local biomes in determining the characteristics of different regions of Nigeria.
CONTENT
(a) Tropical rainforest.
(b) Guinea savanna (southern and northern).
(c) Sudan Savanna.
(d) Desert.
(e) Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of the Obudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.

SUB TOPIC 3: NATURAL HABITATS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
A.
i. associate plants and animals with each of these habitats.
B.
i. relate adaptive features to the habitats in which an organism lives.
CONTENT
(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakes seashores and mangrove swamps).
(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm, abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field, and burrow or hole.

SUB TOPIC 4: SOIL
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
A.
i. identify physical properties of different soil types based on simple measurement of particle size, porosity or water retention ability.
ii. determine the amounts of air, water, humus and capillarity in different soil types experimentally.

B.
i. relate soil characteristics, types and components to the healthy growth of plant.

C.
i. relate such factors as loss of inorganic matter, compaction, leaching, erosion of the top soil and repeated cropping with one variety.

D.
i. apply the knowledge of the practice of contour ridging, terracing, mulching, poly-cropping, strip-cropping, use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, crop rotation, shifting cultivation, etc to enhance soil conservation.
CONTENT
(a) Characteristics of different types of soil (sandy, loamy, clayey).
i. soil structure.
ii. porosity, capillarity and humus content.

(b) Components of the soil:
i. inorganic
ii. organic
iii. soil organisms
iv. soil air
v. soil water.

(c)Soil fertility:
i. loss of soil fertility.
ii. Renewal and maintenance of soil fertility.

SUB TOPIC 5: CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the various methods of conservation of both the renewable and non-renewable natural resources for the protection of our environment for present and future generations.

ii. outline the benefits of conserving natural resources, prevention of desertification.

iii. identify the bodies responsible for the conservation of resources at the national and international levels (e.g. Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF), Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria National Parks, World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and their activities.

iv. asses their activities.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 6: DISEASES
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

A.
i. identify ecological conditions that favour the spread of common endemic and potentially epidemic disease e.g. malaria, meningitis, drancunculiasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, typhoid fever and cholera etc.

ii. relate the biology of the vector or agent of each disease with its spread and control.

B.
i. use the knowledge of the causative organisms, mode of transmission and symptoms of the listed diseases to their prevention/treatment/control.

ii. apply the principles of inoculation and vaccination on disease prevention.
CONTENT
(a) Common and endemic diseases.
(b) Easily transmissible diseases and disease syndrome such as:

i. poliomyelitis
ii. cholera
iii. tuberculosis
iv. sexually transmitted disease/syndrome (gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc).

SUB TOPIC 7: GAME RESERVES AND NATURAL PARKS
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. Know the location and importance of game reserves and National parks in Nigeria.
CONTENT
SUB TOPIC 8: POPULATION AND ITS CONTROL
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

A.
i. categorize pollution into air, water and soil pollution.
ii. relate the effects of common pollutants to human health and environmental degradation.
iii. determine the methods by which each pollutant may be controlled.

B.
i. examine the importance of sanitation with emphasis on solid waste sewage disposal, community health and personal hygiene.
ii. assess the roles and functions of international and national health agencies (e.g. World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF), International Red Cross Society (IRCS), and the ministries of health and environment.
CONTENT
(a) Sources, types, effects and methods of control.
(b) Sanitation and sewage.

SUB TOPIC 8: ENERGY FLOW IN THE ECOSYSTEM
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. food chains and webs.
CONTENT
(a) Food chains.
(b) Food webs.
(c) Trophic levels

SUB TOPIC 9: NUTRIENT CYCLING IN NATURE
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
A.
i. describe the cycle and its significance including the balance of atmospheric oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide and global warming.

B.
i. assess the effects of water cycle on other nutrient cycles.

C.
i. relate the roles of bacteria and leguminous plants in the cycling of nitrogen.
CONTENT
(a) Carbon cycle
(b) Water cycle
(c) Nitrogen cycle

SUB TOPIC 10: SYMBIOTIC INTERACTIONS OF PLANTS
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine appropriate examples of symbiosis, parasitism, saprophytism, commensalism, mutualism, amensalism, competition, predation and cooperation among organisms.

ii. associate the distribution of organisms with food chains and food webs in particular habitats.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 11: ADAPTATION FOR SURVIVAL
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
A.
i. relate increase in population, diseases, shortage of food and space with intra- and inter-specific competition.

B.
i) determine niche differentiation as a means of reducing intra-specific completion.

C.
i) relate competition to succession.
CONTENT
(a) Factors that bring about competition.
(b) Intra and inter-specific competition.
(c) Relationship between competition and succession.

SUB TOPIC 12: ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. trace the sequence in succession to the climax stage of stability in plant population.
CONTENT
(a) Primary succession.

(b) Secondary succession.


SUB TOPIC 13: FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION SIZES
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. deduce the effect of these factors on the size of population.

ii. determine the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, e.g. drought or scarcity of water which leads to food shortage and lack of space which causes increase in disease rates.
CONTENT
(a) Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition, reproductive ability).

(b) Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall, topography, pressure, pH, etc.

SUB TOPIC 14: POPULATION DENSITY AND OVERCROWDING
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the reasons for rapid changes in human population and the consequences of overcrowding.

ii. compute/calculate density as the number of organisms per unit area.
CONTENT

TOPIC 2: EVOLUTION
SUB TOPIC 1: EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. provide evidences for evolution such as fossil records, comparative anatomy, physiology and embryology.

ii. trace evolutionary trends in plants and animals.

iii. provide evidence for modern evolutionary theories such as genetic studies and the role of mutation.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 2: THEORIES OF EVOLUTION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. relate organic evolution as the sum total of all adaptive changes that have taken place over a long period of time resulting in the diversity of forms, structure and functions among organisms.

ii. examine the contributions of Lamarck and Darwin to the theory of evolution.

iii. know evidences in support of organic evolution.
CONTENT
(a) Lamarck’s theory.

(b) Darwin’s theory.

(c) Organic theory.

TOPIC 3: FORM AND FUNCTIONS
SUB TOPIC 1: GROWTH
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the knowledge of the conditions necessary for germination on plants growth.

ii. differentiate between epigeal and hypogeal germination.
CONTENT
(a) Meaning of growth.

(b) Germination of seeds and condition necessary for germination of seeds.

SUB TOPIC 2: INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A FLOWERING PLANT
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the transverse sections of these organs.

ii. relate the structure of these organs to their functions.

iii. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma) sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres).

iv. describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stem and leaf.
CONTENT
(a) Root

(b) Stem

(c) Leaf

SUB TOPIC 3: INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A MAMMAL
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the arrangement of the mammalian internal organs.

ii. describe the appearance and position of the digestive, reproductive and excretory organs.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 4: HOMEOSTATSIS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the function of hormones to regulating the levels of materials inside the body.
CONTENT
(a) Body temperature regulation.

(b) Salt and water regulation.

SUB TOPIC 5: HORMONAL CONTROL
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

A.

i. locate the listed endocrine glands in animals.

ii. relate the hormone produced by each of these glands to their functions.

B.

i. examine the effects of various phytohormones (e.g. auxins, gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene) on growth, tropism, flowering, fruit ripening and leaf abscission.
CONTENT
(a) Animal hormonal system.

i. Pituitary

ii. Thyroid

iii. Parathyroid

iv. Adrenal gland

v. Pancreas

vi. Gonads.

(b) Plant hormones (phytohormones).

SUB TOPIC 6: NERVOUS CO-ORDINATION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the knowledge of the structure and function of the central nervous system in the coordination of body functions in organisms.

ii. illustrate reflex actions such as blinking of the eyes, knee jerk etc.

iii. differentiate between reflex and voluntary actions as well as conditioned reflexes such as salivation, riding a bicycle and swimming.
CONTENT
(a) The components, structure and functions of the central nervous system.

(b) The components and functions of the peripheral nervous systems.

(c) Mechanism of transmission of impulses.

(d) Reflex action.

SUB TOPIC 7: THE SENSE ORGANS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i. associate the listed sense organs with their functions.

ii. apply the knowledge of the structure and functions of these sense organs in detecting and correcting their defects.
CONTENT
(a) Skin (tactile)

(b) Nose (olfactory)

(c) Tongue (taste)

(d) Eye (sight)

(e) Ear (auditory).

SUB TOPIC 8: EXCRETORY MECHANISMS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:
i. relate the structure of the kidneys to the excretory and osmo-regulatory functions.

ii. identify the functions and excretory products of the lungs and the skin.
CONTENT
(a) Kidneys

(b) Lungs

(c) Skin.


SUB TOPIC 9: EXCRETORY PRODUCTS OF PLANTS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. deduce the economic importance of the excretory products of plants, e.g carbon (IV) oxide, oxygen, tannins, resins, gums, mucilage, alkaloids etc.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 10: TYPES OF EXCRETORY STRUCTURES
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. define the meaning and state the significance of excretion.

ii. relate the characteristics of each structure with functions.
CONTENT
(a) Contractile vacuole

(b) Flamecell

(c) Nephridium

(d) Malpighian tubule

(e) Kidney

(f) Stoma and lenticel.

SUB TOPIC 11: ANIMAL NUTRITION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

A.

i. indicate the sources of the various classes of food;

ii. relate the importance and deficiency e.g. scurvy, rickets, kwashiorkor etc. of each class;

iii. determine the importance of a balanced diet.

B.

i. detect the presence of the listed food items from the result of a given experiment.

C.

i. describe the structure of a typical mammalian tooth;

ii. differentiate the types of mammalian tooth and relate their structures to their functions.

iii. compare the dental formulae of man, sheep, and dog.

D.

i. relate the structure of the various components of the alimentary canal and its accessory organs (liver, pancreas, and gall bladder) to their functions.

E.

i. identify the general characteristics of digestive enzymes;

ii. associate enzymes with digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats;

iii. determine the end products of these classes of food.
CONTENT
(a) Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water.

(b) Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fat etc.

(c) The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions).

(d) Mammalian alimentary canal.

(e) Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation of digested food).


SUB TOPIC 12: MODES OF NUTRITION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. compare the photosynthetic and chemosynthetic modes of nutrition.

ii. provide examples from both flowering and non-flowering plants.

iii.compare autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition.
CONTENT
(a) Autotrophic

(b) Heterotrophic

SUB TOPIC 13: PLANT NUTRITION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

A.

i. differentiate the light and dark reactions, and state conditions necessary for photosynthesis.

ii. determine the necessity of light, carbon (IV) oxide and chlorophyll in photosynthesis.

iii. detect the presence of starch in a leaf as an evidence of photosynthesis.

B.

i. identify macro-and micro-elements required by plants.

ii. recognise the deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.
CONTENT
(a) Photosynthesis.

(b) Mineral requirements (macro and micro-nutrients).

SUB TOPIC 14: TYPES OF NUTRITION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate the following examples:

- holozoic (sheep and man)

- Parasitic (roundworm, tapeworm and Loranthus)

- saprophytic (Rhizopus and mushroom)

- carnivorous plants (sundew and bladderwort)

ii. determine their nutritional value.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 15: ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction.

ii. apply natural vegetative propagation in crop production and multiplication.

iii. apply grafting, budding and layering in agricultural practices.
CONTENT
(a) Fission as in Paramecium.

(b) Budding as in yeast.

(c) Natural vegetative propagation.

(d) Artificial vegetative propagation.

SUB TOPIC 16: REPRODUCTION IN MAMMALS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

A.

i. differentiate between male and female reproductive organs.

ii. relate their structure and function to the production of offspring.

B.

i. describe the fusion of gametes as a process of fertilization.


ii. relate the effects of the mother’s health, nutrition and indiscriminate use of drugs on the developmental stages of the embryo up to birth.

iii. Modern methods of regulating reproductive on e.g. invitro fertilization and birth control.
CONTENT
(a) Structures and functions of the male and female reproductive organs.

(b) Fertilization and development (Fusion of gamates).

SUB TOPIC 17: SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. relate parts of flower to their functions and reproductive process.

ii. deduce the advantages of cross pollination.

iii. deduce the different types of placentation that develop into simple, aggregate, multiple and succulent fruits.
CONTENT
(a) Floral parts and their functions.

(b) Pollination and fertilization.

(c) Products of sexual reproduction.

SUB TOPIC 18: AEROBIC RESPIRATION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the role of oxygen in the liberation of energy for the activities of the living organisms.

ii. deduce the effect of insufficient supply of oxygen to the muscles.
CONTENT
SUB TOPIC 19: ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. use yeast cells and sugar solution to demonstrate the process of fermentation.

ii. know the economic importance of yeasts.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 20: RESPIRATION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the significance of respiration.

ii. describe a simplified outline of the chemical process involved in glycolysis and krebs cycle with reference to the role ATP.

iii deduce from an experimental set up, gaseous exchange and products, exchange and production of heat energy during respiration.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 21: RESPIRATORY ORGANS AND SURFACES
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the following respiratory organs and surfaces with organisms in which they occur; body surface, gill, trachea, lungs, stomata and lenticel.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 22: THE MECHANISM OF GASEOUS EXCHANGE
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the mechanism for the opening and closing of the stomata.

ii. determine respiratory movements in these animals.
CONTENT
(a) The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:

i. plants

ii. mammals

SUB TOPIC 23: SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the need for support and movement in organisms.

ii. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres).

iii. describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stem, and leaf.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 24: SUPPORTING TISSUES IN ANIMALS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the location of chitin, cartilage and bone to their supporting function.

ii. relate the structure and the general layout of the mammalian skeleton to their supportive, locomotive and respiratory function.

iii. differentiate types of joints using appropriate examples.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 25: TROPIC, TACTIC, NASTIC AND SLEEP MOVEMENTS IN PLANTS
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the response of plants to the stimuli of light, water, gravity and touch.

ii. identify the regions of growth in roots and shoots and the roles of auxins in tropism.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 26: TYPES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the protective, supportive, locomotive and respiratory functions of the skeleton to the well being of the animal.
CONTENT
(a) Exoskeleton

(b) Endoskeleton

(c) Functions of the skeleton in animals.

SUB TOPIC 27: CHANNELS FOR TRANSPORTATION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

A.

i. describe the general circulatory system.

ii. compare specific functions of the hepatic portal vein, the pulmonary vein and artery, aorta, the renal artery and vein.

B.

i. identify the organs of the plant vascular system.

ii. understand the specific functions of the phloem and xylem.
CONTENT
(a) Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries).

(b) Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem).

SUB TOPIC 28: MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the sources of materials and the forms in which they are transported.
CONTENT
(a) Excretory products, gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrient, water and hormones).

SUB TOPIC 29: MEDIA AND PROCESSES OF MECHANISM FOR TRANSPORTATION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. identify media of transportation (e.g. cytoplasm, cell sap, body fluid, blood and lymph);

ii. know the composition and functions of blood and lymph;

iii. describe diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis and turgidity as mechanism of transportation in organisms.

iv. compare the various mechanisms of open circulatory systems, in animal transpiration pull, root pressure and active transport as mechanism of transportation in plants.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 30: NEED FOR TRANSPORTATION
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the relationship between increase in size and complexity and the need for the development of a transport system in plants and animals.
CONTENT

TOPIC 4: HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS
SUB TOPIC 1: HEREDITY
OBJECTIVES
Candidates should be able to:

A.

i. determine heritable and non-heritable characters with examples.

B.

i. illustrate simple structure of DNA.

C.

i. illustrate segregation of genes at meiosis and recombination of genes at fertilization to account for the process of transmission of characters from parents to offspring.

D.

i. deduce that segregation of genes occurs during gamete formation and that recombination of genes at fertilization is random in nature.

E.

i. analyze data on cross-breeding experiments.

ii. apply the principles of heredity in the production of new varieties of crops and livestock through cross-breeding.

iii. deduce advantages and disadvantages of out-breeding and in-breeding.

iv. analyze elementarily the contentious issues of genetically modified organisms (GMO) and gene therapy and biosafety.

F.

i. apply the knowledge of heredity in marriage counselling with particular reference to blood grouping, sickle-cell anaemia and the Rhesus factors.

ii. examine the significance of using recombinant DNA materials in the production of important medical products such as insulin, interferon and enzymes.

G.

i. identify characters that are sex linked.
CONTENT
(a) Inheritance of characters in organisms:

i. Heritable and non-heritable characters.

(b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity:

i. Structure

ii. Process of transmission of hereditary characters from parents to offspring.

(c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.

(d) Application of the principles of heredity in:

i. Agriculture

ii. Medicine

(e) Sex – linked characters e.g. baldness, haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.

SUB TOPIC 2: APPLICATION OF DISCONTINUOUS VARIATION IN CRIME DETECTION, BLOOD TRANSFUSION AND DETERMINATION OF PATERNITY
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the knowledge of blood groups in blood transfusion and determination of paternity.
ii. use discontinuous variation in crime detection.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 3: MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN THE PHYSICAL APPEARANCE OF INDIVIDUALS
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

A.
i. differentiate between continuous and discontinuous variations with examples.
ii. relate the role of environmental conditions, habitat and the genetic constitution to variation.
B.
i. measure heights and weight of pupils of the same age group.
ii. plot graphs of frequency distribution of the heights and weights.
C.
i. observe and record various colour patterns in some plants and mammals.
D.
i. apply classification of fingerprints in identity detection.
CONTENT
(a) Size (height, weight).
(b) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scales and feathers.
(c) Fingerprints.

SUB TOPIC 4: PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATION
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:
i. identify some specific examples of physiological variation among human population.
ii. Categorize people according to their physiological variation.
CONTENT
(a) Ability to roll tongue.
(b) Ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC).
(c) Blood groups.

TOPIC 5: VARIETY OF ORGANISMS
SUB TOPIC 1: ADAPTIVE COLOURATION AND ITS FUNCTIONS
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. categorize countershading in fish, toads and snakes and warning colouration in mushrooms.
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 2: BEHAVIOURAL ADAPTATIONS IN SOCIAL ANIMALS
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate various castes in social insects like termites and their functions in their colony hive.
ii. Account for basking in lizards, territorial behavior of other animals under unfavourable conditions (hibernation and aestivation).
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 3: EVOLUTION AMONG THE FOLLOWING
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyse external features and characteristics of the listed organisms:
ii. apply the knowledge from (i) above to demonstrate increase in structural complexity.
iii. trace the stages in the life histories of the listed organisms.
iv. apply the knowledge of the life histories to demonstrate gradual transition from life in water to life on land.
v. trace the evolution of the listed plants.
vi. trace the advancement of the invertebrate animals.
vii. determine the economic importance of the insects studied.
viii. asses their values to the environment.
ix. trace the advancement of multi-cellular animals.
x. determine their economic importance.
CONTENT
(a) Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria and blue green algae.
(b) Protista (protozoans and protophyta), e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium.
(c) Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.
(d) Plantae (plants):
i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g. Brachmenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae)
- Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
- Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots, e.g. water leaf).

(e)Animalia (animals)
i. Invertebrates
- coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
- Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
- Nematoda (roundworms)
- Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
- Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach, housefly, bee, butterfly
- Mollusca (e.g. snails).

ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
- pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
- Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
- Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
- Aves (birds)
- Mammalia (mammals).

SUB TOPIC 4: LIVING ORGANISMS
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between the characteristics of living and non-living things.

ii. identify the structures of plants and animal cells.

iii. analyse the functions of the components of plants and animal cells.

iv. compare and contrast the structure of plant and animal cells.

v. trace the levels of organization among organisms in their logical sequence in relation to the five level of organization of living organisms.
CONTENT
(a) Characteristics.
(b) Cell structure and functions of cell Components.
(c) Level of organization:

i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium.
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra.
iii. Organ, e.g. onion bulb.
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive and excretory.
v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas.

SUB TOPIC 5: STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS IN ORGANISMS
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to account for adaptation in organisms with respect to the following:

i. Obtaining food (beaks and legs of birds, mouthparts of insects, especially mosquito, butterfly and moth).
ii. Protection and defence (stick insects, praying mantis and toad).
iii. Securing mates (redhead male and female Agama lizards, display of fathers by birds).
iv. Regulating body temperature (skin, feathers and hairs).
v. Conserving water (spines in plants and scales in mammals).
CONTENT

SUB TOPIC 5: STRUCTURAL/FUNCTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL ADAPTATIONS OF ORGANISMS
OBJECTIVES

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe how the various structures, functions and behaviour adapt these organisms to their environment, and way of life.
CONTENT

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